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Lanthanum in its stable 3 oxidation state has no ), which correspond closely to the first three peaks of the coprecipitated pigments at 869, 875, and 882 nm.We conclude that the titanium white pigment luminescence arises from neodymium incorporated into the calcium sulfate structure.), the primary titanium source for 20th century pigment manufacture, and become incorporated into the sulfate structure during the coprecipitation process.

ICP-MS was used to determine concentrations of REEs in ilmenite ore samples from the Mc Intyre mine (New York), the Faraday mine (Canada), Egersund (Norway), and the Middle Atlas Mountains (Morocco).The Mc Intyre mine was the primary source of titanium for Titanium Pigments Co., the manufacturer of the TITANOX pigments ().The Egersund province in Norway has one of the most important deposits of titanium in Europe, and Titan Company A/S, maker of Kronos Titanvitt pigments (including coprecipitated pigments), used this source of ilmenite ().Transmission electron microscopy has the capability to distinguish mechanically mixed and coprecipitated pigments (Our technical investigations of abstract expressionist paintings revealed strong, distinctive sets of peaks in Raman spectra of certain titanium white paints (Fig.1) that were not ascribable to known pigments or fillers and did not match spectra in common Raman databases including the Infrared and Raman Users Group (IRUG) database, RRUFF, e-vibrational spectroscopic databases of artists’ materials database (e-VISART), University College London Raman Spectroscopic Library of Natural and Synthetic Pigments, Dipartimento di Fisica E Scienze della Terra, and the Romanian Database of Raman Spectroscopy.

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