Psychological effects dating violence
Straus and Field report that psychological aggression is a pervasive trait of American families: "verbal attacks on children, like physical attacks, are so prevalent as to be just about universal." Choi and Mayer performed a study on elder abuse (causing harm or distress to an older person), with results showing that 10.5% of the participants were victims of "emotional/psychological abuse," which was most often perpetrated by a son or other relative of the victim.Of 1288 cases in 2002–2004, 1201 individuals, 42 couples, and 45 groups were found to have been abused. Psychological abuse (59%) and material/financial (42%) were the most frequently identified types of abuse.Most victims of psychological abuse within intimate relationships often experience changes to their psyche and actions.This varies throughout the various types and lengths of emotional abuse.Although psychological abuse does not always lead to physical abuse, physical abuse in domestic relationships is nearly always preceded and accompanied by psychological abuse.A 2012 review by Capaldi et al., which evaluated risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV), noted that psychological abuse has been shown to be both associated with and common in IPV.The victim may experience severe psychological effects.
It also may be perpetrated by persons conducting torture, other violence, acute or prolonged human rights abuse, particularly without legal redress such as detention without trial, false accusations, false convictions and extreme defamation such as where perpetrated by state and media.Some parents may emotionally and psychologically harm their children because of stress, poor parenting skills, social isolation, and lack of available resources or inappropriate expectations of their children.They may emotionally abuse their children because the parents or caregivers were emotionally abused during their own childhood."Younger age may be a reflection of lack of job experience, resulting in [an inability] to identify or prevent potentially abusive situations...Another finding showed that lower education is a risk factor for violence." report that while men exhibit more aggression overall, sex is not a reliable predictor of interpersonal aggression, including psychological aggression.